Accessibility 188金博宝网站Features

金宝搏188MathJax's mission is to provide the best tool金宝搏188s for mathematics on theweb.Naturally,this means for everyone and thus accessibility is animportant concern for us.

金宝搏188MathJax User Interface

Math金宝搏188Jax用户界面包括金宝搏188MathJax Menuand the various 金宝搏188MathJax Processing Messages,cfthe core configuration.

The user interface is localized to over 20 languages and many morepartial localizations thanks to the fantastic support ofthecommunity at

The 金宝搏188MathJax Menu also follows WCAG 2.0 guidelines.Each 金宝搏188MathJaxfragment is included in the tab order;the menu can be triggered viathe space or menu key;and navigation in the menu is possible usingthe arrow keys.

金宝搏188MathJax Accessibility Extensions

The金宝搏188MathJax Accessibility extensionsprovideseveral tools and 188金博宝网站features that enable universal rendering of金宝搏188mathematics on the web.They enhance rendering both visually andaurally.In particular:

  • An innovative responsive rendering of 金宝搏188mathematical content through collapsing and exploration of subexpressions.
  • An aural rendering tool providing on-the-fly speech-text for金宝搏188mathematical content and its subexpressions using various rule sets.
  • An exploration tool,allowing for meaningful exploration of金宝搏188mathematical content including multiple highlig188金博宝网站hting features andsynchronized aural rendering.

The Accessibility Extensions support the widest selection of browsers,operating systems,and assistive technologies as they only requirethe use of well-supported web standards such as WAI-ARIA,inparticular labels and live regions.


We strongly suggest that you use the 金宝搏188MathJax Accessibility extensions toprovide the best possible experience for all users.

Legacy Support via AssistiveMML.js

Some screen readers support MathML,金宝搏188MathJax's internalformat.Screenreaders like ChromeVox,JAWS (on IE),and Texthelpsupport 金宝搏188MathJax directly while other screenreaders can benefit fromtheAssistiveMML extension.

TheAssistiveMMLextension embeds visually hidden MathML alongside金宝搏188MathJax's visual rendering while hiding the visual rendering fromassistive technology (AT) such as screenreaders.This allows mostMathML-enabled screenreaders to read out the underlying金宝搏188mathematics.It's important to note that Presentation MathML isusually not expressive enough to voice the 金宝搏188mathematics properly in allcircumstances,which is why screenreaders have to rely on heuristicsto analyze the MathML semantically.

The quality of MathML support in screenreaders varies greatly,withdifferent levels of MathML feature support,different speech rulesets,and different voicing technologies.

The expected result for 金宝搏188MathJax given the current state of technology is roughly the following:

  • The visually-hidden MathML is read out correctly by AT (i.e.,notjust the character strings but,e.g., leads to"fraction";this will vary with the MathML support of thescreenreader).
  • The visual rendering is not read out by AT
  • The 金宝搏188MathJax Menu triggers AT to say "clickable" before each math element.
    • This allows keyboard users to enter the 金宝搏188MathJax Menu via space or menu key.
  • The visually hidden MathML does not get an outline (usually placedat an odd location due to the target of the outline being visuallyhidden).
    • except in iOS VoiceOver,where this allows the user to hook into VoiceOver's exploration 188金博宝网站features.

Support Matrix (AssistiveMML.js)

Below is a summary of results for MathML enabled screenreaders and thelegacy AssistiveMML extension,based on tests as well as user reports.

Screenreader Browser OS Usable? Bugs
ChromeVox Chrome any +1 no bugs
NVDA any WinXP DNA MathPlayer 4 does not support WinXP
NVDA Chrome any DNA Chrome issues prevent MathML support by NVDA
NVDA Firefox Win7 +1 no bugs
NVDA Firefox Win8.1 +1 no bugs
NVDA Firefox Win10 +1 no bugs
NVDA MS Edge Win10 DNA Edge issues prevent MathML support by NVDA
NVDA IE11 Win8.1 +1 no bugs
NVDA IE10 Win7 +1 no bugs
NVDA IE9 Win7 +1 no bugs
JAWS any WinXP DNA JAWS 15 was the last version to support Windows XP but MathML support in JAWS starts with JAWS 16
JAWS Chrome any DNA JAWS only supports IE and Firefox
JAWS Firefox Win8.1 +1 no bugs
JAWS Firefox Win7 +1 no bugs
JAWS Firefox Win10 +1 no bugs
JAWS MS Edge Win10 DNA JAWS only supports IE and Firefox
JAWS IE11 Win8.1 +1 no bugs
JAWS IE10 Win7 +1 no bugs
JAWS IE9 Win7 +1 no bugs
VoiceOver Safari OSX +1 see notes below
VoiceOver Chrome OSX DNA Chrome and VoiceOver issues prevent MathML support in this combination.
VoiceOver Firefox OSX DNA Chrome and Firefox issues prevent MathML support in this combination.
Orca Firefox Ubuntu 15.10 +1 no bugs
Orca Web Ubuntu 15.10 DNA Chrome issues prevent MathML support by ORCA
Orca Chrome(ium) Ubuntu 15.10 DNA Chrome issues prevent MathML support by ORCA

Notes on Apple VoiceOver

  • VoiceOveron OSX
    • Safari.The visually-hidden MathML is read out and gets anoutline.Visual rendering is ignored correctly.VoiceOversomtimes drops parts of the equation due to its partial MathMLsupport.
    • Chrome.The visually-hidden MathML is detected but VoiceOverdoes not read it correctly (only e.g.,"4 items detected;math";this seems like a VO bug);an outline is added.Visual renderingis ignored correctly.
    • Firefox.The visually-hidden MathML is only read as a string ofcontained characters;an outline is added.Visual rendering isignored correctly.
  • VoiceOveron iOS
    • The "slide two fingers from top to read screen" method will readthe visually-hidden MathML.Visual rendering is ignored correctly.
    • Manual exploration.
      • Exploration by swiping left/right will read the visually-hidden MathML.Visual rendering is ignored correctly.
      • Tapping on an equation does not work due to the visually-hidden MathML being placed in a 1px box.

Notes on MathPlayer 4 and Internet Explorer 11

Design Science suggests that you always use IE's Enterprise mode forMathPlayer in IE11,see their documentation.However,it seems that this is only required for MathPlayer's visualrendering to work and this additionally requires the MathPlayerBrowserHelperAddon to be active in IE.

Unfortunately,the MathPlayer BrowserHelperAddon can lead tocrashes.E.g.,if you switch 金宝搏188MathJax's output to the NativeMML output,MathPlayer will crash IE11;you'll have to clear the 金宝搏188MathJax cookieto reset things.Also,in a plain MathML sample (without 金宝搏188MathJax),clicking on the MathPlayer rendering will crash IE11.

Using IE's Enterprise mode should work with NVDA and the AssistiveMML extensionbut they don't seem to work with NVDA and plain MathML pages.

We suggest you do not switch on IE's Enterprise mode on pages using 金宝搏188MathJax andwe also have to strongly suggest that younotuse the BrowserHelperAddon with 金宝搏188MathJaxon IE11.